the following is the Form of Agreement described at page 129. It was printed at the Brethren's  Press, Serampore, in 1805, and reprinted at the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta, in 1874, with this title page:—


    Form of Agreement respecting the Great Principles upon which the Brethren of the Mission at Serampore think it their duty to act in the work of instructing the Heathen, agreed upon at a Meeting of the Brethren at Serampore, on Monday, October 7, 1805.


The RedeemeR, in planting us in this heathen nation, rather than in any other, has imposed upon us the cultivation of peculiar qualifications. We are firmly persuaded that Paul might plant and Apollos water, in vain, in any part of the world, did not God give the increase. We are sure that only those who are ordained to eternal life will be saved. Nevertheless we cannot but observe with admiration that Paul, the great champion for the glorious doctrines of free a sovereign grace, was the most conspiciuous for his personal zeal in the work of persuading men to be reconciled to God. In this respect he is a noble example for our imitation. Our Lord intimated to those  of His Apostles who were fishermen, that He would make them fishers of men, intimating that in all weathers, and amidst every disappointment they were to aim at drawing men to the shores of eternal life. Solomon says, "He that winneth souls is wise," implying, no doubt, that the



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work of gaining over men to the side of God, was to be done by winning methods, and that it required the greatest wisdom to do it with success. Upon these points, we think it right to fix our serious and abiding attention.


    First. In order to be prepared for our great and solemn work, it is absolutely necessary that we set an infinite value upon immortal souls; that we often endeavour to affect our minds with the dreadful loss sustained by an unconverted soul launched into eternity. It becomes us to fix in our minds the awful doctrine of eternal punishment, and to realise frequently the inconceivably awful condition of this vast country, lying in the arms of the wicked one. If we have not this awful sense of the value of souls, it is impossible that we can feel aright in any other part of our work, and in this case it had been better for us to have been in any other situation rather than in that of a Missionary. Oh! may our hearts bleed over these poor idolaters, and may their case lie with continued weight on our minds, that we may resemble that eminent Missionary, who compared the travail of his soul, on account of the spiritual state of those commited to his charge, to the pains of childbirth. But while we thus mourn over their miserable condition, we should not be discouraged, as though their recovery were impossible. He who raised the sottish and brutalized Britons to sit in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, can raise these slaves of superstition, purify their hearts by faith, and make them worshippers of the one God in spirit and in truth. The promises are fully sufficient to remove our doubts, and to make us anticipate that not very distant period when He will famish all the gods of India, and cause these very idolaters to cast their idols to the moles and to the bats, and renounce for ever the work of their own hands.


    Secondly. It is very important that we should gain all the information we can of the snares and delusions in which these heathens are held. By this means we shall be able to converse with them in an intelligible manner. To know their modes of thinking, their habits, their propensities, their antipathies, the way in which they reason about God, sin, holiness, the way of salvation, and a future state, to be aware of the bewitching nature of their idolatrous worship, feasts, songs, etc., is of the highest consequence, if we would gain their attention to our discourse, and would avoid being barbarians to them. This knowledge may be easily obtained by conversing with sensible natives, by reading some parts of their works and by attentively observing their manners and customs.


    Thirdly. It is necessary, in our intercourse with the Hindoos,





that, as far as we are able, we abstain from those things which would increase their prejudices against the Gospel. Those parts of English manners which are most offensive to them should be kept out of sight as much as possible. We should avoid every degree  of cruelty to animals. Nor is it advisable at once to attack their prejudices by exhibiting with acrimony the sins of their gods; neither should we upon any account do violence to their images, nor interrupt their worship. The real conquests of the Gospel are those of love: "And I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto me." In this respect, let us be continually fearful lest one unguarded word, or one unnecessary display of the difference betwixt us, in manners, etc., should set the natives at a greater distance from us. Paul's readiness to become all things to all men, that he might by any means save some, and his disposition to abstain even from necessary comforts that he might not offend the weak, are circumstances worthy of our particular notice. This line of conduct we may be sure was founded on the wisest principles. Placed amidst a people very much like the hearers of the Apostle, in many respects, we may now perceive the solid wisdom which guided him as a Missionary . The mild manners of the Moravians, and also the Quakers towards the North American Indians, have, in many respects inferior to himself, is ill-qualified to become a Missionary. The words of a most successful preacher of the Gospel still living, "that he would not care if the people trampled him under their feet, if he might become useful to their souls," are expressive of the very temper we should always cultivate.


    Fourthly. It becomes us to watch all opportunities of doing good. A missionary would be highly culpable if he contended himself with preaching two or three times a week to those persons whom he might be able to get together into a place of worship. To carry on conversations with the natives almost every hour in the day, to go from village to village, from market to market, from one assembly to another, to talk to servants, labourers, etc., as often as opportunity offers, and to be instant in season and out of season—this is the life to which we are called in this country. We are apt to relax in these active exertions, especially in a warm climate; but we shall do well always to fix it in our minds, that life is short, that all around us are perishing, and that we incur a dreadful woe if we proclaim not the glad tidings of salvation.



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    Fifthly. In preaching to the heathen, we must keep to the example of Paul, and make the great subject of our preaching, Christ the Crucified. It would be very easy for a missionary to preach nothing but truths, and that for many years together, without any well-grounded hope of becoming useful to one soul. The doctrine of Christ's expiatory death and all sufficient merits has been, and must ever remain, the grand mean of conversion. This doctrine, and others immediately connected with it, have constantly nourished and sanctified the church. Oh that these glorious truths may ever be the joy and strength of our own souls, and then they will not fail to become the matter of our conversation to others. It was the proclaiming of these doctrines that made the Reformation from Popery in the time of Luther spread with such rapidity. It was these truths that filled the sermons of the modern Apostles, Whitfield, Wesley, etc., when the light of the Gospel which had been held up with such glorious effects by the Puritans was almost extinguished in England. It is a well-known fact that the most successful missionaries in the world at the present day make the atonement of Christ their continued theme. We mean the Moravians. They attribute all their success to the preaching of the death of our Saviour. So far as our experience goes in this work, we must freely acknowledge, that every Hindoo among us who has been gained to Christ, has been won by the astonishing and all-constraining love exhibited in our Redeemer's propitiatory death. Oh then may we resolve to know nothing among Hindoos and Mussulmans but Christ and Him crucified.


    Sixthly. It is absolutely necessary that the natives should have an entire confidence in us, and feel quite at home in our company. To gain this confidence we must on all occasions be willing to hear their complaints; we must give them the kindest advice, and we must decide upon everything brought before us in the most open, upright, and impartial manner. We ought to be easy of access, to condescend to them as much as possible, and on all occasions to treat them as our equals. All passionate behaviour will sink our characters exceedingly in their estimation. All force, and everything haughty, reserved, and forbidding, it becomes us ever to shun with the greatest care. We can never make sacrifices to great, when the eternal salvation of souls is the object, except, indeed, we sacrifice the commands of Christ.


    Seventhly. Another important part of our work is to build up, and watch over, the souls that may be gathered. In this work we shall do well to simplify our first instructions as much as possible, and to press the great principles of the Gospel upon the minds of the con-





verts till they be thoroughly settled and grounded in the foundation of their hope towards God. We must be willing to spend some time with them daily, if possible, in this work. We must have much patience with them, though they may grow very slowly in divine knowledge.


    We ought also to endeavour as much as possible to form them to habits of industry, and assist them in procuring such employments as may be pursued with the least danger of temptations to evil. Here too we shall have occasion to exercise much tenderness and forbearance, knowing that industrious habits are formed with difficulty by all heathen nations. We ought also to remember  that these persons have made no common sacrifices in renouncing their connections, their homes, their former situations and means of support, and that it will be very difficult for them to procure employment with heathen masters. In these circumstances, if we do not sympathise with them in their temporal losses for Christ, we shall be guilty of great cruelty.


    As we consider it our duty to honour the civil magistrate, and in every state and country to render him the readiest obedience, whether we be persecuted or protected, it becomes us to instruct our native brethren in the same principles. A sense of gratitude too presses this obligation upon us in a peculiar manner in return for the liberal protection we have experienced. It is equally our wisdom and our duty also to show to the civil power, that it has nothing to fear from the progress of Missions, since a real follower of Christ must resist the example of his Great Master, and all the precepts the Bible contains on this subject, before he can become disloyal. Converted heathens, being brought over to the religion of their Christian Governors, if duly instructed, are much more likely to love them, and be united to them, than subjects of a different religion.


    To bear the faults of our native brethren, so as to reprove them with tenderness, and set them right in the necessity of a holy conversation, is a very necessary duty. We should remember the gross darkness in which they were so lately involved, having never had any just and adequate ideas of the evil of sin, or its consequences. We should also recollect how backward human nature is in forming spiritual ideas, and entering upon a holy self-denying conversation. We ought not, therefore, even after many falls, to give up and cast away a relapsed convert while he manifests the least inclination to be washed from his filthiness.


    In walking before native converts, much care and circumspection are absolutely necessary. The falls of Christians in Europe have not such a fatal tendency as they must have in this country, because there



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the word of God always commands more attention than the conduct of the most exalted Christian. But here those around us, in consequence of their little knowledge of the scriptures, must necessarily take our conduct as a specimen of what Christ looks for in His disciples. They know only the Saviour and His doctrine as they shine forth in us.


    In conversing with the wives of native converts, and leading them on in the ways of Christ, so that they may be an ornament to the Christian cause, and make known the Gospel to the native women, we hope always to have the assistance of the females who have embarked with us in the mission. We see that in primitive times the Apostles were very much assisted in their great work by several pious females. The great value of female help may easily be appreciated if we consider how much the Asiatic women are shut up from the men, and especially from men of another caste. It behoves us, therefore, to afford to our European sisters all possible assistance in acquiring the language, that they may, in every way which Providence may open to them, become instrumental in promoting the salvation of the millions of native women who are in a great measure excluded from all opportunities of hearing the word from the mouths of European missionaries. A European sister may do much for the cause in this respect, by promoting the holiness, and stirring up the zeal, of the female native converts.


    A real missionary becomes in a sense a father to his people. If he feel all the anxiety and tender solicitude of a father, all that delight in their welfare and company that a father does in the midst of his children, they will feel all that freedom with, and confidence in him which he can desire. He will be wholly unable to lead them on in a regular and happy manner, unless they can be induced to open their minds to him, and unless a sincere and mutual esteem subsist on both sides.


    Eighthly. Another part of our work is the forming our native brethren to usefulness, fostering every kind of genius, and cherishing every gift and grace in them. In this respect we can scarcely be too lavish of our attention to their improvement. It is only by means of native preachers that we can hope for the universal spread of the Gospel throughout this immense continent. Europeans are too few, and their substance costs too much, for us ever top hope that they can possibly be the instruments of the universal diffusion of the word amongst so many millions of souls, spread over such a large portion of the habitable globe. Their incapability of bearing the intense heat of the climate in perpetual itineracies, and the heavy expenses of their journeys, not to say anything of the prejudices of the natives against





the very presence of Europeans, and the great difficulty of becoming fluent in their languages, render it absolute duty to cherish native gifts, and to send forth as many native preachers as possible. If the practice of confining the ministry of the word to a single individual in a church be once established amongst us, we despair of the Gospel's ever making much progress in India by our means. Let us therefore use every gift, and continually urge our native brethren to press upon their countrymen the glorious Gospel of the blessed God.


    Still further to strengthen the cause of Christ in this country, and, as far as in our power, to give it a permanent establishment, even when the efforts of Europeans may fail, we think it our duty, as soon as possible, to advise the native brethren who may be formed into separate churches, to choose their pastors and deacons from amongst their own countrymen, that the word may be statedly preached, and the ordinances of Christ administered, in each church, by the native minister, as much as possible, without the interference of the missionary of the district, who will constantly superintend their affairs, give them advice in cases of order and discipline, and correct any errors into which they may fall, and who, joying and beholding their order, and the steadfastness of their faith in Christ, may direct his efforts continually to the planting of new churches in other places, and to spread of the Gospel throughout his district as much as in his power. By this means, the unity of the missionary character will be preserved, all the missionaries will still form one body, each one movable as the good of the cause may require , the different native churches will also naturally learn to care and provide for their ministers, for their church expenses, the raising places of worship, etc., and the whole administration will assume a native aspect, by which means the inhabitants will more readily identify the cause as belonging to their own nation, and their prejudices at falling into the hands of Europeans will entirely vanish. It may be hoped too that the pastors of these churches, and the members in general, will feel a new energy in attempting to spread the Gospel, when they shall thus freely enjoy the privileges of the Gospel amongst themselves.


                Under the divine blessing, if, in the course of a few years, a number of native churches be thus established, from them the word of God may sound out even to the extremities of India, and numbers of preachers being raised up and sent forth, may form a body of native missionaries, inured to the climate, acquainted with the customs, language, modes of speech and reasoning of the inhabitants; able to become perfectly familiar with them, to enter their houses, to live



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upon their food, to sleep with them, or under a tree; and who may travel from one end of the country to the other almost without any expense. These churches will be in no immediate danger of falling into errors or disorders, because the whole of their affairs will be constantly superintended be a European missionary. The advantages of this plan are so evident, that to carry it into complete effect ought to be our continued concern. That we may discharge the important obligations of watching over these infant churches when formed, and urging them to maintain a steady discipline, to hold forth the clear and cheering light of evangelical truth in this region and shadow of death, and to walk in all respects as those who have been called out of darkness into marvelous light, we should continually go to the Source of all grace and strength; for if, to become the shepherd of one church be a most solemn and weighty charge, what must it be to watch over a number of churches just raised from a state of heathenism, and placed at a distance from each other?


    We have thought it our duty not to change the names of native converts, observing the Scripture that the Apostles did not change those of the first Christians turned from heathenism, as the names Epaphroditus, Phebe, Fortunatus, Sylvanus, Apollos, Hermes, Junia, Narcissus, etc., prove. Almost all these names are derived from those of heathen gods. We think the great object which Divine Providence has in view in causing the Gospel to be promulgated in the world, is not the changing of the names, the dress, the food, and the innocent usages of mankind, but to produce a moral and divine change in the hearts and conduct of men. It would not be right to perpetuate the names of heathen gods amongst Christians, neither is it necessary or prudent to give a new name to every man after his conversion, as hereby the economy of families, neighbourhoods, etc., would be needlessly disturbed. In other respects, we think it our duty to lead our brethren by example, by mild persuasion, and by opening and illuminating their minds in a gradual way, rather than use authoritative means. By this they learn to see the evil of a custom, and then to despise and forsake it; whereas in cases wherein force is used, though they may leave off that which is wrong while in our presence, yet not having seen the evil of it, they are in danger of using hypocrisy, and of doing that out of our presence which they dare not do in it.


    Ninthly. It becomes us also to labour with all our might in forwarding translations of the sacred Scriptures in the languages of Hindoostan. The help which God has afforded us already in this work is a loud call to us to "go forward." So far, therefore, as God





has qualified us to learn those languages which are necessary, we consider it our bounden duty to apply with unwearied assiduity in acquiring  them. We consider the publication of the Divine Word throughout India as an object which we ought never to give up till accomplished, looking to the Fountain of all knowledge and strength to qualify us for this great work, and to carry us through it to the praise of His Holy Name.


    It becomes us to use all assiduity in explaining and distributing the Divine Word on all occasions, and by every means in our power to excite the attention and the reverence of the natives towards it, as the fountain of eternal truth, and the Message of Salvation to men. It is our duty also to distribute, as extensively as possible, the different religious tracts which are published. Considering how much the general diffusion of the knowledge of Christ depends upon a liberal and constant distribution of the Word, and of these tracts, all over the country, we should keep this continually in mind, and watch all opportunities of putting even single tracts into the hands of those persons with whom we occasionally meet. We should endeavour to ascertain where large assemblies of the natives are to be found, that we may attend upon them, and gladden whole villages at once with the tidings of salvation.


    The establishment of native free schools is also an object highly important to the future conquests of the Gospel. Of this very pleasing and interesting part of our missionary labours, we should endeavour not to be unmindful. As opportunities are afforded, it becomes us to establish, visit, and encourage these institutions, and to recommend the establishment of them to other Europeans. The progress of divine light is gradual, both as it respects individuals and nations. Whatever therefore tends to increase the body of holy light in these dark regions is "as bread cast upon the waters to be seen after many days." In many ways the progress of providential events in preparing the Hindoos for casting their idols to the moles and the bats, and for becoming a part of the chosen generation, the royal priesthood, the holy nation. Some parts of missionary labours very properly tend to the present conversion of the heathen, and others to the ushering in glorious period when "a nation shall be born in a day." Of the latter kind are native free schools.


    Tenthly. That which, as a means, is to fit us for the discharge of these laborious and unutterably important labours, is the being instant in prayer, and the cultivation of personal religion. Let us ever have in remembrance the examples of those who have been most



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eminent in the work of God. Let us often look at Brainerd, in the woods of America, pouring out his very soul before God for the perishing heathen, without whose salvation nothing could make him happy. Prayer, secret, fervent, believing prayer, lies at the root of all personal godliness. A competent knowledge of the languages current where a missionary lives, a mild and winning temper, and a heart given up to God in closet religion, these, these are the attainments which, more than all knowledge, or all other gifts, will fit us to become the instruments of God in the great work of Human Redemption. Let us then ever be united in prayer at stated seasons, whatever distance may separate us, and let each one of us lay it upon his heart that we will seek to be fervent in spirit, wrestling with God, till He famish these idols and cause the heathen to experience the blessedness that is in Christ.


    Finally. Let us give ourselves up unreservedly to this glorious cause. Let us never think that our time, our gifts, our strength, our families, or even the clothes we wear, are our own. Let us sanctify them all to God and His cause. Oh that He may sanctify us for His work! Let us for ever shut out the idea of laying up a cowry for ourselves or our children. If we give up the resolution which was formed on the subject of private trade, when we first united at Serampore, the Mission is from that hour a lost cause. A worldly spirit, quarrels, and every evil work, will succeed, the moment it is admitted that each brother may do something on his own account. Woe to that man who shall ever make the smallest movement towards such a measure. Let us continually watch against a worldly spirit, and cultivate a Christian indifference towards every indulgence. Rather lat us bear hardness as good soldiers of Jesus Christ, and endeavour to learn in every state to be content.


    If in this way we are enabled to glorify God with our bodies and spirits which are His—our wants will be His care. No private family ever enjoyed a greater prosperity, than we have done since we resolved to have all things in common, and that no one should pursue business for his own exclusive advantage. If we are enabled to persevere in the same principles, we may hope that multitudes of converted souls will have reason to bless God to all eternity for sending His Gospel into this country.


    To keep these ideas alive in our minds, we resolve that this Agreement shall be read publicly, at every station, at our three annual meetings, viz., on the first Lord's day in January, in May, and October.










    In the eighty-first Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society (1885), received since the text was corrected for press, we find this passage, page 189 :—


    "Two new versions (of the Bible) are in progress, ‘the Tulu, a language spoken by half a million of people inhabiting the central part of South Canara, and the Konkani, a dialect of Marathi, spoken by upwards of 100,000 people on the western coast.'  In both these languages some efforts were made long ago—in the case of the Konkani, by Dr. Carey; but time and better tools have imposed the duty of advancing upon the achievements of the past, not so much displacing and superseding as building upon them.  In proceeding with this work the Konkani Grammar and Dictionary, compiled during the past few years by the Jesuit missionaries at Mangalore, will be of considerable use."


    The madras Auxiliary Bible Society in 1884 published an edition of the Gospel of John, "taken from Carey's version, printed in 1818 in the Devanagari character, but somewhat altered, so as to be better understood by all classes."  Renewed revisions of the versions of the Bible in Marathi, Goojarati, Pushtoo, Persian, Telugoo, Santali, Ooriya, Hindi, and Bengali are still being made by the ablest missionary scholars, Native and European, on the spot.  Among the native revisers is that accomplished minister of the Free Church of Scotland and Marathi scholar, the Rev. Baba Padmanji.  The Rev. Dr. Imad-ud-din, of the Church Missionary Society, formerly a Mohammedan maulavi, is of opinion that the Oordoo or Hindostani Bible also needs revision, and a committee of experts is to be formed for the purpose.  In the Great Exhibition held at Calcutta in 1883, Carey's Translations, lent by the College Library at Serampore, were exhibited side by side with the revised versions, to which they gave birth in most instances.  No Scriptures were sold in the Exhibition, but 28,675 copies of the Gospels and other sacred books were presented to native visitors.











    The following is taken from the Minutes of the University of Calcutta:—


Fr             From George Smith, Esquire, to J. Sutcliffe, Esquire, Registrar of the University of Calcutta, dated Serampore, the 29th November 1867.


It seems to me that the time has come for the Indian University system to assimilate to itself, and so to elevate and impregnate with the results of Western thought, the purely Oriental learning and Vernacular Education of India.  That system is based exclusively on the constitution and practice of the London University, and ignores almost all that is not English in form and substance.


    It will certainly be admitted, at least, that the time has come to ask the question, whether the course of education in India in the last third of a century has not been to exclusively English in its character.


    The people themselves feel this want, and in the past few years more than one demand has been made upon Government for its satisfaction.  The movement which is known as that of the Lahore or Punjab University is well known to the Senate.  Of its earnestness and importance I satisfied myself when at Lahore at the end of last year, and Major Lees will testify to both with an authority I cannot presume to claim.  Solely from the impossibility or unwillingness of our University to assist, elevate or incorporate that movement, it has drifted into what looks very like ultimate failure.  The opinions of His Excellency the Chancellor and Sir Donald M'Leod in favour of that movement have been widely published.  Both have given it warm personal and official support.  Then there has been , more recently, the similar application of the Institute at Allyghur or Bareilly, representing the learned natives of the North-Western Provinces.  The reply of the Government of India to that application recognized the necessity





for aiding Oriental learning by honours and rewards.  At present all that our University does is to insist that graduates shall add to a sound and extensive knowledge of the English language and literature, and of European history, science and philosophy, all taught and acquired through the medium of English, familiarity with one learned language, which may be Latin or Greek as well as Sanskrit or Arabic.


    This seems to me not enough.  It fails, and will always fail, to reach the learned class of Pundits and Moulvies whom, for political as well as social reasons, it is so desirable to influence, and it has not the remotest effect on the progress of Vernacular Education.  If our University is to be true to its name and functions, and to develop not after a London pattern, but naturally and with a healthy and varied fullness, it must recognize the wants, absorb the intellectual life, and guide the literature and language of all classes.  The University is in a new position, and has made a noble beginning.  The question is, how will it best represent and elevate the full and varied intellectual life of India?


    (a.)     That the University of Calcutta be empowered to affiliate Colleges in which true science, true history, and true metaphysics are taught only through the Oriental languages, and in which such languages and their literature are scientifically studied.


    (b.)     That the University be permitted to grant degrees for purely Oriental attainment of an honorary character to distinguished Oriental Scholars, and after examination to others.  If the University of London could meet the growing interest of Englishmen in physical science by creating the degree of Doctor of Science ; why should not that of Calcutta adapt itself to India by conferring such degrees as Doctor of Sanskrit of Master of Arabic?


    The late Sir Donald M'Leod, when Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, thus addressed the Hindoo and Mohammedan nobles of Lahore on this subject:—


    The great bulk of our scholars never attain more than a very superficial knowledge, either of English or of the subjects they study in that language, while the mental training imparted is, as a general rule, of a purely imitative character, ill calculated to raise the nation to habits of vigorous or independent thought.


    It appears indeed evident that, to impart knowledge in a foreign tongue must of necessity greatly increase the difficulties of education.





In England, where the Latin and Greek languages are considered an essential part of a polite education, all general instruction is conveyed, no in those languages, but in the vernacular of the country ; and it seems difficult to assign a sufficient reason why a different principle should be acted upon here.


    And this brings me to the defect which I myself more especially deplore in the system of instruction at present almost exclusively followed, viz. that it has tended, though not intentionally, to alienate from us, in a great measure, the really learned men of your race.  Little or nothing has been done to conciliate these, while the literature and science which they most highly value have been virtually ignored.  The consequence has been that the men of most cultivated minds amongst our race and yours have remained but too often widely apart, each being unable either to understand or to appreciate the other.  And thus we have virtually lost the aid and co-operation of those classes, who I feel assured, afforded by far the best instruments for creating the literature we desire.


    By Act XXI. of 1875 the University of Calcutta obtained  power to grant honorary degrees, and at once exercised the power by conferring the degree of Doctor in Law (D.L.) on H.R.H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, K.G.  In 1876 the degree of D.L. was conferred on Professor Monier Williams, Rev. K. M. Banerjea, and Rejendralala Mitra, all Orientalists.  But this University declined to adapt or extend its system so as to meet the views of the Punjab, or those of the learned of the North-Western Province who shared them.


    In 1869 the movement in the Punjab was so generally supported by the chiefs and nobles of the province that the Government of India sanctioned the creation of the Punjab University College, with power to grant certificates only and not degrees.  In 1882 an Act of the Legislative Council of India, with the consent of the Crown, erected this into the Punjab University, with a Faculty of Arts, and a separate Oriental Faculty which grants the degrees, after examination, of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Oriental Learning, but is not yet empowered to grant degrees in Law, Science, Medicine, or Engineering.


    Mr. B. H. Baden-Powell, C.I.E., Vice-Chancellor of the





Punjab University in 1884, thus described its principles in an address to Convocation:—


    The aims of the new University are embodied in a threefold function of the Institution, which function nit endeavours to perform in addition to its ordinary duty as the Chief Public Examining body of the Province.  The first of these functions is to watch over the Vernacular literature of the Punjab, both translated and original.  With this object, the University  maintains "fellowships," or, as they are now called (to avoid clashing with the statutory title of Fellow as that only of members of the Senate) "Readerships."  These readerships are only tenable on condition of the holder engaging in either translation, original authorship and research, or in teaching.  Besides which the Senate grants aid and offers rewards to authors of approved merit.  The second function is to encourage not only English education, but education of a national character and Oriental tone, of course, through the medium of the Vernaculars.  The third, is to act as a sort of public council to give advice to Government on all educational matters when consulted—as it always has been—by Government.


    . . . It is in connection with Higher Oriental Education that questions arise and difficulties are felt, which no other Indian University ahs to face.  As is well known, there are very naturally two much opposed schools of though on the subject.  Each view is supported with ability and energy, but it is sometimes no light task to hold the balance evenly between the two.  The warmth with which opinions are espoused is in itself by no means an unmixed evil.  That men feel warmly on a subject shows that the matter is one of real interest and importance.  No one will I am sure be disposed to deny that English scholarship must always be the aim of those who would reach the highest place.  And this is quite exceptionally the case in law studies.  No success in translation work can ever avail to give the purely vernacular student all that a man can take for himself when he has the key of the storehouse in the shape of a thorough knowledge of English.  On the other hand, this University would never have come into existence if it was not the feeling that there were serious drawbacks to the education given in English schools and colleges.  The advocates of English education seem to have considered that the vernaculars never could be sufficiently improved to become the vehicles of a tolerably complete literary or scientific teaching such as a good college would desire; they found the ancient learning absolutely valueless, and the ancient literature just of so much





practical worth, that it might take a place somewhat inferior to that occupied by Greek and Latin in the older collegiate course in England.  But while this view necessarily went contrary to the feelings of many, especially of the older men in the country, the English teaching had the effect of not only uprooting all religious feeling, but also the older forms of courtesy, and the traditions of parental and family life and subordination.  It is, of course, a great difficulty that State education must be purely secular.  Common justice demands that no active attempt to teach one religion to the exclusion of another should be made.


    On the other hand, the great principle will hardly be denied—certainly if it is denied it will vindicate itself in results—that the moral and spiritual side of man's nature needs cultivation as well as the intellectual and the physical side; and it has been felt that English State Education was—no doubt without any intention that it should be so, but was in effect—to chill and even to destroy the springs of reverence and devotion and the religious sentiment in the students.  It is my earnest conviction that no education can be of any real use while does that—I mean any use in the wide sense of the word—to the nation as well as to the individual.  "The root of wisdom is to fear God and the branches of it are Life."  So wrote a learned Jew nearly 2000 years ago in Alexandria, then the centre of Eastern learning; and it is as true now as then. . . . How to maintain that reverence in our public education without violating religious neutrality is a great problem.  It is true that mere secular teaching will impart a certain sense of self-respect, and may be the agent of enlightenment which in itself produces a certain improvement in the moral nature.  It may incidentally illustrate and even formally inculcate, the advantages and the beauty of truth, temperance and simplicity of life; but at best it can only give a cold and almost selfishly utilitarian morality.


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Created:    August 17, 2007            Updated:    September 28, 2007