The type of a Christian gentleman—Carey and his first wife—His second marriage—The Lady Rumohr—His picture of their married life—His nearly fatal illness when forty-eight years old—His meditations and dreams—Aldeen House—Henry Martyn's pagoda—Carey, Marshman, and the Anglican chaplains in the pagoda—Corrie's account of the Serampore Brotherhood—Claudius Buchanan and his Anglican establishment—Improvement in Anglo-Indian Society—Carey's literary and scientific friends—Desire in the West for a likeness of Carey—Home's portrait of him—Correspondence with his son William on missionary consecration, Buonaparte, botany, the missionary a soldier, Felix and Burma, hunting, the temporal power of the Pope, the duty of reconciliation, a cure for asthma, living near to God.


"A Gentleman is the next best character after a Christian, and the latter includes the former," were the father's words to the son whom he was sending forth as a Christian missionary and state superintendent of schools.  Carey wrote from his own experience, and he unwittingly painted his own character.  The peasant bearing of his early youth showed itself throughout his life in a certain shyness, which gave a charm to his converse with old and young.  Occasionally, as in a letter which he wrote to his old friend Pearce of Birmingham, at a time when he did not know whether his distant correspondent was alive or dead, he burst forth into an unrestrained enthusiasm of affection and service.  But his was rather the even tenor of domestic devotion and friendly duty, unbroken by passion or coldness, and ever lighted up



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by a steady geniality.  The colleagues who were associated with him for the third of a century worshipped him in the old English sense of the word.  The younger committee-men and missionaries who came to the front on the death of Fuller, Sutcliff, and Ryland, in all their mistaken conflicts with these colleagues, always tried to separate Carey from those they denounced, till even his saintly spirit burst forth into wrath at the double wrong thus done to his coadjutors.  His intercourse with the chaplains and bishops of the Church of England, and with the missionaries of other Churches and societies, was as loving in its degree as his relations to his own people.  With men of the world, from the successive Governor-Generals, from Wellesley, Hastings, and Bentinck, down to the scholars, merchants, and planters with whom he became associated for the public good, William Carey was ever the saint and the gentleman whom it was a privilege to know.


    In nothing perhaps was Carey's true Christian gentlemanliness so seen as in his relations with his first wife, above whom grace and culture had immeasurably raised him, while she never learned to share his aspirations or to understand his ideals.  Not only did she remain to the last a peasant woman, with a reproachful tongue, but the early hardships of Calcutta and the fever and dysentery of Mudnabati clouded the last twelve years of her life with madness.  Never did reproach or complaint escape his lips regarding either her or Thomas, whose eccentric impulses and oft-darkened spirit were due to mania also.  Of both he was the tender nurse and guardian when, many a time, the ever-busy scholar would fain have lingered at his desk or sought the scanty sleep which his jealous devotion to his Master's business allowed him.  The brotherhood arrangement, the common family, Ward's influence over the boys, and Hannah Marshman's housekeeping relieved him of much that his wife's illness






had thrown upon him at Mudnabati, so that a colleague describes him, when he was forty-three years of age, as still looking young in spite of the few hairs on his head, after eleven years in Lower Bengal of work such as never Englishman had before him.  But almost from the first day of his early married life he had never known the delight of daily converse with a wife able to enter into his scholarly pursuits, and ever to stimulate him in his heavenly quest.  When the eldest boy, Felix, had left for Burma in 1807 the faithful sorrowing husband wrote to him:—"Your poor mother grew worse and worse from the time you left us, and died on the 7th December about seven o'clock in the evening.  During her illness she was almost always asleep, and I suppose during the fourteen days that she lay in a severe fever she was not more than twenty-four hours awake.  She was buried the next day in the missionary burying-ground."


    About the same time that Carey himself settled in Serampore there arrived the Lady Rhumohr.  She built a house on the Hoogli bank immediately below that of the missionaries, whose society she sought, and by whom she was baptized.  On the 9th May 1808 she became Carey's wife; and in May 1821 she too was removed by death in her sixty-first year, after thirteen years of unbroken happiness. 


    Charlotte Emelia, born in the same year as Carey in the then Danish duchy of Schleswick, was the only child of the Chevalier de Rumohr, who married the Countess of Ahlfeldt.  Her wakefulness when a sickly girl of fifteen saved the whole household from destruction by fire, but she herself became so disabled that she could never walk up or down stairs.  She failed to find complete recovery in the south of Europe, and her father's friend, Mr. Anker, a director of the Danish East India Company, gave her letters to his brother, then Governor of Tranquebar, in the hope that the climate of India might cause her relief.  The Danish ship brought her first to Seram-



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pore, where Colonel Bie introduced her to the brotherhood, and there she resolved to remain.  She knew the principal languages of Europe; a copy of the Pensées of Pascal, given to her by Mr. Anker before she sailed, for the first time quickened her conscience.  She speedily learned English, that she might join the missionaries in public worship.  The barren orthodoxy of the Lutheranism in which she had been brought up had made her a sceptic.  This soon gave way to the evangelical teaching of the same apostle who had brought Luther himself to Christ.  She became a keen student of the Scriptures, then an ardent follower of Jesus Christ.


    On her marriage to Dr. Carey, in May 1808, she made over her house to the mission, and when, long after, it became famous as the office of the weekly Friend of India, the rent was sacredly devoted to the assistance of native preachers.  She learned Bengali that she might be as a mother to the native Christian families.  She was her husband's counsellor in all that related to the extension of the varied enterprise of the brethren.  Especially did she make the education of Hindoo girls her own charge, both at Serampore and Cutwa.  Her leisure she gave to the reading of French Protestant writers, such as Saurin and De Moulin.  She admired, wrote Carey, "Massillon's language, his deep knowledge of the human heart, and his intrepidity in reproving sin; but felt the greatest dissatisfaction with his total neglect of his Saviour, except when He is introduced to give efficacy to works of human merit.  These authors she read in their native language, that being more familiar to her than English.  She in general enjoyed much of the consolations of religion.  Though so much afflicted, a pleasing cheerfulness generally pervaded her conversation.  She indeed possessed great activity of mind.  She was constantly out with the dawn of the morning when the weather permitted, in her little carriage drawn by one bearer; and again in the evening, as






soon as the sun was sufficiently low.  She thus spent daily nearly three hours in the open air.  It was probably this vigorous and regular course which, as the means, carried her beyond the age of three-score years (twenty-one of them spent in India), notwithstanding the weakness of her constitution."


    It was a pretty picture, the delicate invalid lady, drawn along the mall morning and evening, to enjoy the river breeze, on her way to and from the schools and homes of the natives.  But her highest service was, after all, to her husband, who was doing a work for India and for humanity, equalled by few, if any.  When, on one occasion, they were separated for a time while she sought for health, she wrote to him the tenderest yet most courtly love-letters, of which Dr. Culross has already published this delightful specimen:


    "My dearest Love—I felt very much in parting with thee, and feel much in being so far from thee. . . . I am sure thou wilt be happy and thankful on account of my voice, which is daily getting better, and thy pleasure greatly adds to mine own.


    "I hope you will not think I am writing too often; I rather trust you will be glad to hear of me...Though my journey is very pleasant, and the good state of my health, the freshness of the air, and the variety of objects enliven my spirits, yet I cannot help longing for you.  Pray, my love, take care of your health that I may have the joy to find you well.


"I thank thee most affectionately, my dearest love, for thy kind letter.  Though the journey is very useful to me, I cannot help feeling much to be so distant from you, but I am much with you in my thoughts. . . . The Lord be blessed for the kind protection He has given to His cause in a time of need.  May He still protect and guide and bless His dear cause, and give us all hearts growing in love and zeal. . . . I



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felt very much affected in parting with thee.  I see plainly it would not do to go far from you; my heart cleaves to you.  I need not say (for I hope you know my heart is not insensible) how much I feel your kindness in not minding any expense for the recovery of my health.  You will rejoice to hear me talk in my old way, and not in that whispering manner.


    "I find so much pleasure in writing to you, my love, that I cannot help doing it.  I was nearly disconcerted by Mrs.—— laughing at my writing so often; but then, I thought, I feel so much pleasure in receiving your letters that I may hope you do the same.  I thank thee, my love, for thy kind letter.  I need not say that the serious part of it was welcome to me, and the more as I am deprived of all religious intercourse...I shall greatly rejoice, my love, in seeing thee again; but take care of your health that I may find you well. I need not say how much you are in my thoughts day and night."


    His narrative of their intercourse, written after her death, lets in a flood of light on his home life:—


    "During the thirteen years of her union with Dr. Carey, they had enjoyed the most entire oneness of mind, never having a single circumstance which either of them wished to conceal from the other.  Her solicitude for her husband's health and comfort was unceasing. They prayed and conversed together on those things which form the life of personal religion, without the least reserve; and enjoyed a degree of conjugal happiness while thus continued to each other, which can only arise from a union of mind grounded on real religion. On the whole, her lot in India was altogether a scene of mercy.  Here she was found of the Saviour, gradually ripened for glory, and after having her life prolonged beyond the expectation of herself and all who knew her, she was released from this mortal state almost without the conscious-



sick nigh unto death.



ness of pain, and, as we most assuredly believe, had 'an abundant entrance ministered unto her into the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.'"


    When, on 24th June 1809, Carey announced at the dinner table that he had that morning finished the Bengali translation of the whole Bible, and he was asked how much more he thought of doing, he answered: "The work I have allotted to myself, in translating, will take me about twenty years."  But he had kept the bow too long and too tightly bent, and it threatened to snap.  That evening he was seized with bilious fever, and on the eighteenth day thereafter his life was despaired of. "The goodness of God is eminently conspicuous in raising up our beloved brother Carey," wrote Marshman. "God has raised him up again and restored him to his labours; may he live to accomplish all that is in his heart," wrote Rowe. He was at once at his desk again, in college and in his study. "I am this day forty-eight years old," he wrote to Ryland on the 17th August, and sent him the following letters, every line of which reveals the inner soul of the writer:—


    "Calcutta, 16th August 1809.—I did not expect, about a month ago, ever to write to you again.  I was then ill of a severe fever, and for a week together scarcely any hopes were entertained of my life.  One or two days I was supposed to be dying, but the Lord has graciously restored me; may it be that I may live more than ever to His glory.  Whilst I was ill I had scarcely any such thing as thought belonging to me, but, excepting seasons of delirium, seemed to be nearly stupid; perhaps some of this arose from the weak state to which I was reduced, which was so great that Dr. Hare, one of the most eminent physicians in Calcutta, who was consulted about it, apprehended more danger from that than from the fever.  I, however, had scarcely a thought of death or eternity, or of life, or anything belonging thereto.  In my



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delirium, greatest part of which I perfectly remember, I was busily employed in carrying a commission from God to all the princes and governments in the world, requiring them instantly to abolish every political establishment of religion, and to sell the parish and other churches to the first body of Christians that would purchase them.  Also to declare war infamous, to esteem all military officers as men who had sold themselves to destroy the human race, to extend this to all those dead men called heroes, defenders of their country, meritorious officers, etc.1  I was attended by angels in all my excursions, and was universally successful.  A few princes in Germany were refractory, but my attendants struck them dead instantly.  I pronounced the doom of Rome to the Pope, and soon afterwards all the territory about Rome, the march of Ancona, the great city and all its riches sank into that vast bed of burning lava which heats Nero's bath.  These two considerations were the delirious wanderings of the mind, but I hope to feel their force, to pray and strive for their accomplishment to the end of my life.  But it is now time to attend to something not merely ideal.


    "The state of the world occupied my thoughts more and more; I mean as it relates to the spread of the Gospel.  The harvest truly is great, and labourers bear scarcely any proportion thereto.  I was forcibly struck this morning with reading our Lord's reply to His disciples, John iv.  When He had told them that He had meat to eat the world knew not of, and that His meat was to do the will of His Father and to finish His work, He said, 'Say not ye there are three months and then cometh harvest?'  He by this plainly intended to call their attention to the conduct of men when harvest was approaching, for that being the season upon


    1The sight of the red coat of the military surgeon who attended him gave this form to his delirious talk:—"I treated him very roughly and refused to touch his medicine.  In vain did he retire and put on a black coat.  I knew him and was resolved."



the world and the spiritual harvest.



which all the hopes of men hang for temporal supplies, they provide men and measures in time for securing it.  Afterwards directing their attention to that which so occupied His own as to be His meat and drink, He said, 'Lift up your eyes and look upon the fields (of souls to be gathered in), for they are white already to harvest.'  After so many centuries have elapsed and so many fields full of this harvest have been lost for want of labourers to gather it in, shall we not at last reflect seriously on our duty?  Hindostan requires ten thousand ministers of the Gospel, at the lowest calculation, China as many, and you may easily calculate for the rest of the world.  I trust that many will eventually be raised up here, but be that as it may the demands for missionaries are pressing to a degree seldom realised.  England has done much, but not the hundredth part of what she is bound to do.  In so great a want of ministers ought not every church to turn its attention chiefly to the raising up and maturing of spiritual gifts with the express design of sending them abroad? Should not this be a specific matter of prayer, and is there not reason to labour hard to infuse this spirit into the churches?


    "A mission into Siam would be comparatively easy of introduction and support on account of its vicinity to Prince of Wales Island, from which vessels can often go in a few hours.  A mission to Pegu and another to Arakan would not be difficult of introduction, they being both within the Burman dominions, Missions to Assam and Nepal should be speedily tried.  Brother Robinson is going to Bhootan, but Sister R. is very poorly, and his fears are so high about personal safety that my hopes from him are greatly lowered thereby.  I do not know anything about the facility with which missions could be introduced into Cochin China, Cambodia, and Laos, but were the trial made I believe difficulties would remove.  It is also very desirable that the Burman mission should be strengthened.  There is no full liberty of conscience, and



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several stations might be occupied; even the borders of China might be visited from that country if an easier entrance into the heart of the country could not be found.  I have not mentioned Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, the Philippines, or Japan, but all these countries must be supplied with missionaries.  This is a very imperfect sketch of the wants of Asia only, without including the Mahometan countries; but Africa and South America call as loudly for help, and the greatest part of Europe must also be holpen by the Protestant churches, being nearly as destitute of real godliness as any heathen country on the earth.  What a pressing call, then, is here for labourers in the spiritual harvest, and what need that the attention of all the churches in England and America should be drawn to this very object!"


    Two years after the establishment of the mission at Serampore, David Brown, the senior chaplain and provost of Fort William College, took possession of Aldeen House, which he occupied till the year of his death in 1812.  The house is the first in the settlement reached by boat from Calcutta.1  Aldeen is five minutes' walk south of the Serampore Mission House, and a century ago there was only a park between them.  The garden slopes down to the noble river, and commands the beautiful country seat of Barrackpore, which Lord Wellesley had just built.  The house itself is embosomed in trees, the mango, the teak, and the graceful bamboo.  Just below it, but outside of Serampore, are the deserted temple of Bullubpoor and the Ghat of the same name, a fine flight of steps up which thousands of pilgrims flock every June to the adjoining shrine and monstrous car of Jagganath.  David Brown had not been long in Aldeen when he secured the deserted temple


1See plan on page 125.



missionary unity at aldeen.



and converted it into a Christian oratory, ever since known as Henry Martyn's Pagoda.  For ten years Aldeen and the pagoda became the meeting-place of Carey and his Nonconformist friends, with Claudius Buchanan, Martyn, Bishop Corrie, Thomason, and the little band of evangelical Anglicans who, under the protection of Lords Wellesley and Hastings, sweetened Anglo-Indian society, and made the names of "missionary" and of "chaplain" synonymous.  Here too there gathered, as also to the Mission House higher up, many a civilian and officer who sought the charms of that Christian family life which they had left behind.  A young lieutenant commemorated these years when Brown was removed, in a pleasing elegy, which Charles Simeon published in the Memorials of his friend.  Many a traveller from the far West still visits the spot, and recalls the memories of William Carey and Henry Martyn, of Marshman and Buchanan, of Ward and Corrie, which linger around the fair scene.  When first we saw it the now mutilated ruin was perfect, and under the wide-spreading banian tree behind a Brahman was reciting, for a day and a night, the verses of the Mahabharat epic to thousands of listening Hindoos.


"Long, Hoogli, has thy sullen stream

   Been doomed the cheerless shores to lave;

 Long has the Suttee's baneful gleam

   Pale glimmered o'er thy midnight wave.


"Yet gladdened seemed to flow thy tide

   Where opens on the view—Aldeen;

 For there to grace thy palmy side

   Loved England's purest joys were seen.


 .            .            .            .            .


"Yon dome, 'neath which in former days

   Grim idols marked the pagan shrine,

 Has swelled the notes of pious praise,

   Attuned to themes of love divine."



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    We find this allusion to the place in Carey's correspondence with Dr. Ryland:—"20th January 1807.—It would have done your heart good to have joined us at our meetings at the pagoda.  From that place we have successively recommended Dr. Taylor to the work of the Lord at Bombay, Mr. Martyn to his at Dinapoor, Mr. Corrie to his at Chunar, Mr. Parsons to his at Burhampore, Mr. Des Granges to his at Vizagapatam, and our two brethren to theirs at Rangoon, and from thence we soon expect to commend Mr. Thomason to his at Madras.  In these meetings the utmost harmony prevails and a union of hearts unknown between persons of different denominations in England."  Dr. Taylor and Mr. Des Granges were early missionaries of the London Society; the Rangoon brethren were Baptists; the others were Church of England chaplains.  The "beggarly elements" of sacramentarianism and the consequent priestcraft of sacerdotalism had not then begun to afflict the Church of India.  There were giants in those days, in Bengal, worthy of Carey and of the one work in which all were the servants of one Master.


    Let us look a little more closely at Henry Martyn's Pagoda.  It is now a picturesque ruin, which the peepul tree that is entwined among its fine brick masonry, and the crumbling river-bank, will soon cause to disappear for ever.  The exquisite tracery of the moulded bricks may be seen, but not the few figures that are left of the popular Hindoo idols just where the two still perfect arches begin to spring.  The side to the river has already fallen down, and with it the open platform overhanging the bank on which the missionary sat in the cool of the morning and evening, and where he knelt to pray for the people.  We have accompanied many a visitor there, from Dr. Duff to Bishop Cotton, and have rarely seen one unmoved.  This pagoda had been abandoned long before



henry martyn's pagoda.



by the priests of Radhabullub, because the river had encroached to a point within 300 feet of it, the limit within which no Brahman is allowed to receive a gift or take his food.  The little black doll of an idol, which is famous among Hindoos alike for its sanctity and as a work of art—for had it not been miraculously wafted to this spot like the Santa Casa to Loretto?—was removed with great pomp to a new




temple after it had paid a visit to Clive's moonshi, the wealthy Raja Nobokissen in Calcutta, who sought to purchase it outright.


    In this cool old pagoda Henry Martyn, on one of his earliest visits to Aldeen after his arrival as a chaplain in 1806, found an appropriate residence.  Under the vaulted roof of the shrine a place of prayer and praise was fitted up with an organ, so that, as he wrote, "the place where once devils were worshipped has now become a Christian oratory." 



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Here, too, he laid his plans for the evangelisation of the people.  When suffering from one of his moods of depression as to his own state, he thus writes of this place:—"I began to pray as on the verge of eternity; and the Lord was pleased to break my hard heart.  I lay in tears, interceding for the unfortunate natives of this country; thinking within myself that the most despicable soodra of India was of as much value in the sight of God as the King of Great Britain."  It was from such supplication that he was once roused by the blaze of a Suttee's funeral pyre, on which he found that the living widow had been consumed with the dead before he could interfere.  He could hear the hideous drums and gongs and conch-shells of the temple to which Radhabullub had been removed.  There he often tried to turn his fellow-creatures to the worship of the one God, from their prostrations "before a black image placed in a pagoda, with lights burning around it," whilst, he says, he "shivered as if standing, as it were, in the neighbourhood of hell."  It was in this pagoda that Brown, Corrie, and Parsons met with him to commend him to God before he set out for his new duties at Dinapoor. "My soul," he writes of this occasion, "never yet had such divine enjoyment.  I felt a desire to break from the body, and join the high praises of the saints above.  May I go 'in the strength of this many days.'  Amen." "I found my heaven begun on earth.  No work so sweet as that of praying and living wholly to the service of God." And as he passed by the Mission House on his upward voyage, with true catholicity "Dr. Marshman could not resist joining the party: and after going a little way, left them with prayer."  Do we wonder that these men have left their mark on India?


    As years went by, the temple, thus consecrated as a Christian oratory, became degraded in other hands.  The brand "pagoda distillery" for a time came to be known as






marking the rum manufactured there.  The visits of so many Christian pilgrims to the spot, and above all, the desire expressed by Lord Lawrence when Governor-General to see it, led the Hindoo family who own the pagoda to leave it at least as a simple ruin. There it still stands, but the river is fast encroaching on it.


    Corrie, afterwards the first bishop of Madras, describes the marriage of Des Granges in the oratory, and gives us a glimpse of

life in the Serampore Mission House:—


    "1806.  Calcutta strikes me as the most magnificent city in the world; and I am made most happy by the hope of being instrumental to the eternal good of many.  A great opposition, I find, is raised against Martyn and the principles he preaches...Went up to Serampore yesterday, and in the evening was present at the marriage of Mr. Des Granges.  Mr. Brown entered into the concern with much interest. The pagoda was fixed on, and lighted up for the celebration of the wedding; at eight o'clock the parties came from the Mission House [at Serampore], attended by most of the family.  Mr. Brown commenced with the hymn, 'Come, gracious Spirit, heavenly dove!'  A divine influence seemed to attend us, and most delightful were my sensations.  The circumstance of so many being engaged in spreading the glad tidings of salvation,—the temple of an idol converted to the purpose of Christian worship, and the Divine presence felt among us,—filled me with joy unspeakable.  After the marriage service of the Church of England, Mr. Brown gave out 'the Wedding Hymn'; and after signing certificates of the marriage we adjourned to the house, where Mr. Brown had provided supper.  Two hymns given out by Mr. Marshman were felt very powerfully.  He is a most lively, sanguine missionary; his conversation made my heart burn within me, and I find desires of spreading the Gospel growing stronger daily, and my zeal in the cause more ardent...I went to the Mission House, and supped at the same table with about fifty native converts.  The triumph of the Cross was most evident in breaking down their prejudices, and uniting them with those who formerly were an abomination in their eyes.  After supper they sang a Bengali hymn, many of them with tears of joy; and they concluded with prayer in Bengali, with evident earnestness and emotion.  My own feelings were too big for utterance.  O may the time be hastened when every tongue shall confess Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the Father!



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    "On Friday evening [Oct. 10th], we had a meeting in the pagoda, at which almost all the missionaries, some of their wives, and Captain Wickes attended, with a view to commend Martyn to the favour and protection of God in his work.  The Divine presence was with us.  I felt more than it would have been proper to express.  Mr. Brown commenced with a hymn and prayer, Mr. Des Granges succeeded him, with much devotion and sweetness of expression: Mr. Marshman followed, and dwelt particularly on the promising appearance of things; and, with much humility, pleaded God's promises for the enlargement of Zion; with many petitions for Mr. Brown and his family.  The service was concluded by Mr. Carey, who was earnest in prayer for Mr. Brown: the petition that 'having laboured for many years without encouragement or support, in the evening it might be light,' seemed much to affect his own mind, and greatly impressed us all.  Afterwards we supped together at Mr. Brown's. . . .


    "13th Oct.—I came to Serampore to dinner.  Had a pleasant sail up the river: the time passed agreeably in conversation.  In the evening a fire was kindled on the opposite bank; and we soon perceived that it was a funeral pile, on which the wife was burning with the dead body of her husband.  It was too dark to distinguish the miserable victim. . . . On going out to walk with Martyn to the pagoda, the noise so unnatural, and so little calculated to excite joy, raised in my mind an awful sense of the presence and influence of evil spirits."


    Corrie married the daughter of Mrs. Ellerton, who knew Serampore and Carey well.  It was Mr. Ellerton who, when an indigo-planter at Malda, opened the first Bengali school, and made the first attempt at translating the Bible into that vernacular.  His young wife, early made a widow, witnessed accidentally the duel in which Warren Hastings shot Philip Francis.  She was an occasional visitor at Aldeen, and took part in the pagoda services.  Fifty years afterwards, not long before her death at eighty-seven, Bishop Wilson, whose guest she was, wrote of her:"She made me take her to Henry Martyn's pagoda.  She remembers the neighbourhood, and Gharetty Ghat and House in Sir Eyre Coote's time (1783).  The ancient Governor of Chinsurah and his fat Dutch wife are still in her mind.  When she visited him with her first hus-






band (she was then sixteen) the old Dutchman cried out, 'Oh, if you would find me such a nice little wife I would give you ten thousand rupees.'"


    It was in Martyn's pagoda that Claudius Buchanan first broached his plan of an ecclesiastical establishment for India, and invited the discussion of it by Carey and his colleagues.  Such a scheme came naturally from one who was the grandson of a Presbyterian elder of the Church of Scotland, converted in the Whitefield revival at Cambuslang.  It had been suggested first by Bishop Porteous when he reviewed the Company's acquisitions in Asia. It was encouraged by Lord Wellesley, who was scandalised on his arrival in India by the godlessness of the civil servants and the absence of practically any provision for the Christian worship and instruction of its officers and soldiers, who were all their lives without religion, not a tenth of them ever returning home.  Carey thus wrote, at Ryland's request, of the proposal which resulted in the arrival in Calcutta of Bishop Middleton and Dr. Bryce in 1814:—"I have no opinion of Dr. Buchanan's scheme for a religious establishment here, nor could I from memory point out what is exceptionable in his memoir.  All his representations must be taken with some grains of allowance."  When, in the Aldeen discussions, Dr. Buchanan told Marshman that the temple lands would eventually answer for the established churches and the Brahmans' lands for the chaplains, the stout Nonconformist replied with emphasis, "You will never obtain them."  Whatever be the judgment of our readers on an establishment which during the seventy years of its existence at a cost of ten millions sterling has given us at least the brief and beautiful episcopates of Heber and Cotton, we may regret that Carey's principles were not applied so as to enable civilians to help themselves, while the Government should confine its care to the supply of military chaplains only on a non-intolerant system.  And we may all



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accept the conversion of the idol shrine into a place of prayer—as Gregory I. taught Augustine of Canterbury to transform heathen temples into Christian churches—as presaging the time when the vast temple and mosque endowments will be devoted by the people themselves to their own moral if not spiritual good through education, both religious and secular.


    The change wrought in seventeen years by Carey and such associates as these on society in Bengal, both rich and poor, became marked by the year 1810.  We find him writing of it thus:—"When I arrived I knew of no person who cared about the Gospel except Mr. Brown, Mr. Udny, Mr. Creighton, Mr. Grant, and Mr. Brown, an indigo-planter, besides Brother Thomas and myself.  There might be more, and probably were, though unknown to me.  There are now in India thirty-two ministers of the Gospel.  Indeed, the Lord is doing great things for Calcutta; and though infidelity abounds, yet religion is the theme of conversation or dispute in almost every house.  A few weeks ago (October 1810), I called upon one of the Judges to take breakfast with him, and going rather abruptly upstairs, as I had been accustomed to do, I found the family just going to engage in morning worship.  I was of course asked to engage in prayer, which I did.  I afterwards told him that I had scarcely witnessed anything since I had been in Calcutta which gave me more pleasure than what I had seen that morning.  The change in this family was an effect of Mr. Thomason's ministry. . . . About ten days ago I had a conversation with one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, Sir John Royds, upon religious subjects.  Indeed there is now scarcely a place where you can pay a visit without having an opportunity of saying something about true religion."


    Carey's friendly intercourse, by person and letter, was not confined to those who were aggressively Christian or to Christian and ecclesiastical questions.  His literary and scientific



To face page 196.





pursuits led him to constant and familiar converse with scholars like Colebrooke and Leyden, with savants like Roxburgh, the astronomer Bentley, and Dr. Hare, with publicists like Sir James Mackintosh and Robert Hall, with such travellers and administrators as Manning, the friend of Charles Lamb, and Raffles.


    In Great Britain the name of William Carey had, by 1812, become familiar as a household word in all evangelical circles.  The men who had known him in the days before 1793 were few and old, were soon to pass away for ever.  The new generation had fed their Christian zeal on his achievements, and had learned to look on him, in spite of all his humility which only inflamed that zeal, as the pioneer, the father, the founder of foreign missions, English, Scottish, and American.  They had never seen him; they were not likely to see him in the flesh.  The desire for a portrait of him became irresistible.  The burning of the press, to be hereafter described, which led even bitter enemies of the mission like Major Scott Waring to subscribe for its restoration, gave the desired sympathetic voice, so that Fuller wrote to the missionaries:—"The public is now giving us their praises.  Eight hundred guineas have been offered for Dr. Carey's likeness. . . . When you pitched your tents at Serampore you said, 'We will not accumulate riches but devote all to God for the salvation of the heathen.'  God has given you what you desired and what you desired not.  Blessed men, God will bless you and make you a blessing.  I and others of us may die, but God will surely visit you. . . . Expect to be highly applauded, bitterly reproached, greatly moved, and much tried in every way.  Oh that, having done all, you may stand!"  Little did the great-hearted Andrew Fuller dream that his own death in two years would be followed by the most grievous wounding of the missionaries, not from their enemies but from the house of their friends.



life of william carey.



    Carey was, fortunately for posterity, not rebellious in the matter of the portrait; he was passive.  As he sat in his room in the college of Fort William, his pen in hand, his Sanskrit Bible before him, and his Brahman pundit at his left hand, the saint and the scholar in the ripeness of his powers at fifty was transferred to the canvas which has since adorned the walls of Regent's Park College.1  A line engraving of the portrait was published in England the year after at a guinea, and widely purchased, the profit going to the mission.  The painter was Home, famous in his day as the artist whom Lord Cornwallis had engaged during the first war with Tipoo to prepare those Select Views in Mysore, the Country of Tipoo Sultaun, from Drawings taken on the Spot, which appeared in 1794.


    Of his four sons, Felix, William, Jabez, and Jonathan, Carey's correspondence was most frequent at this period with William, who went forth in 1808 to Dinajpoor to begin his independent career as a missionary by the side of Fernandez.  Recalling his own experience in the same district the father thus writes:


    "CALCUTTA, 29th September 1808.—DEAR WILLIAM—I suppose that you are arrived at Sadamahal before now. . . . You will, I trust, feel the weight and importance of the work in which you are engaged, and may God enable you to devote yourself entirely to it.  You will meet with numerous discouragements both from the people to whom you are gone to make known the word of Life, and from what you feel in your own mind, but take courage, the cause is the cause of God, and though it may not be immediately successful will assuredly be so at last.  Consider yourself as devoted to the work of the Lord, and lay yourself out to promote by every method in your power the cause of the great Redeemer. . . .


    "A ship is just arrived which brings the account that


1See Frontispiece.



correspondence with his son.



Buonaparte has taken possession of the whole kingdom of Spain, and that the Royal family of that country are in prison at Bayonne.  It is likely that Turkey is fallen before now, and what will be the end of these wonders we cannot tell.  I see the wrath of God poured out on the nations which have so long persecuted his Gospel, and prevented the spread of His truth.  Buonaparte is but the minister of the Divine vengeance, the public executioner now employed to execute the sentence of God upon criminal men.  He, however, has no end in view but the gratifying his own ambition."


    "30th May 1809.—When you come down take a little pains to bring down a few plants of some sort.  There is one grows plentifully about Sadamahal which grows about as high as one's knee, and produces a large red flower.  Put half a dozen plants in pots (with a hole in the bottom).  There is at Sadamahal (for I found it there) a plant which produces a flower like Bhayt, of a pale bluish colour, almost white; and indeed several other things there.  Try and bring something.  Can't you bring the grasshopper which has a saddle on its back, or the bird which has a large crest which he opens when he settles on the ground?  I want to give you a little taste for natural objects.  Felix is very good indeed in this respect."


    "CALCUTTA, 1st November 1809.—Yesterday was the day for the Chinese examination, at which Jabez acquitted himself with much honour.  I wish his heart were truly set on God. One of the greatest blessings which I am now anxious to see before my death is the conversion of him and Jonathan, and their being employed in the work of the Lord.


    "Now, dear William, what do we live for but to promote the cause of our dear Redeemer in the world?  If that be carried on we need not wish for anything more; and if our poor labours are at all blessed to the promotion of that desirable end, our lives will not be in vain.  Let this, therefore,



life of william carey.



be the great object of your life, and if you should be made the instrument of turning only one soul from darkness to marvellous light, who can say how many more may be converted by his instrumentality, and what a tribute of glory may arise to God from that one conversion.  Indeed, were you never to be blessed to the conversion of one soul, still the pleasure of labouring in the work of the Lord is greater than that of any other undertaking in the world, and is of itself sufficient to make it the work of our choice.  I hope Sebuk Ram is arrived before now, and that you will find him to be a blessing to you in your work.  Try your utmost to make him well acquainted with the Bible, labour to correct his mistakes, and to establish him in the knowledge of the truth.


    "You may always enclose a pinch of seeds in a letter."


    "17th January 1810.—Felix went with Captain Canning, the English ambassador to the Burman Empire, to the city of Pegu. On his way thither he observed to Captain Canning that he should be greatly gratified in accompanying the Minister to the mountains of Martaban and the country beyond them.  Captain Canning at his next interview with the Minister mentioned this to him, which he was much pleased with, and immediately ordered several buffalo-carts to be made ready, and gave him a war-boat to return to Rangoon to bring his baggage, medicines, etc.  He had no time to consult Brother Chater before he determined on the journey, and wrote to me when at Rangoon, where he stayed only one night, and returned to Pegu the next morning.  He says the Minister has now nearly the whole dominion over the Empire, and is going to war.  He will accompany the army to Martaban, when he expects to stay with the Minister there.  He goes in great spirits to explore those countries where no European has been before him, and where he goes with advantages and accommodations such as a traveller seldom can obtain.  Brother and Sister Chater do not approve of his under-



his sons felix and william.



taking, perhaps through fear for his safety.  I feel as much for that as any one can do, yet I, and indeed Brethren Marshman, Ward, and Rowe, rejoice that he has undertaken the journey.  It will assist him in acquiring the language; it will gratify the Minister, it will serve the interests of literature, and perhaps answer many other important purposes, as it respects the mission; and as much of the way will be through uninhabited forests, it could not have been safely undertaken except with an army.  He expects to be absent three months.  I shall feel a great desire to hear from him when he returns, and I doubt not but you will join me in prayer for his safety both of mind and body. . . .


    "One or two words about natural history.  Can you not get me a male and female khokora—I mean the great bird like a kite, which makes so great a noise, and often carries off a duck or a kid?  I believe it is an eagle, and want to examine it.  Send me also all the sorts of ducks and waterfowls you can get, and, in short, every sort of bird you can obtain which is not common here.  Send their Bengali names.  Collect me all the sorts of insects, and serpents, and lizards you can get which are not common here.  Put all the insects together into a bottle of rum, except butterflies, which you may dry between two papers, and the serpents and lizards the same.  I will send you a small quantity of rum for that purpose.  Send all the country names.  Let me have the birds alive; and when you have got a good boat-load send a small boat down with them under charge of a careful person, and I will pay the expenses.  Spare no pains to get me seeds and roots, and get Brother Robinson to procure what he can from Bhootan or other parts.


    "Remember me affectionately to Sebuk Ram and his wife, and to all the native brethren and sisters."


    "5th February 1810.—Were you hunting the buffalo, or did it charge you without provocation?  I advise you to



life of william carey.



abstain from hunting buffaloes or other animals, because, though I think it lawful to kill noxious animals, or to kill animals for food, yet the unnecessary killing of animals, and especially the spending much time in the pursuit of them, is wrong, and your life is too valuable to be thrown away by exposing it to such furious animals as buffaloes and tigers.  If you can kill them without running any risk 'tis very well, but it is wrong to expose yourself to danger for an end so much below that to which you are devoted. . . .


    "I believe the cause of our Redeemer increases in the earth, and look forward to more decided appearances of divine power.  The destruction of the temporal power of the Pope is a glorious circumstance, and an answer to the prayers of the Church for centuries past. . . .


    "I send you a small cask of rum to preserve curiosities in, and a few bottles; but your best way will be to draw off a couple of gallons of the rum, which you may keep for your own use, and then put the snakes, frogs, toads, lizards, etc., into the cask, and send them down.  I can easily put them into proper bottles, etc., afterwards.  You may, however, send one or two of the bottles filled with beetles, grasshoppers, and other insects."


    In the absence of Mr. Fernandez, the pastor, William had excluded two members of the Church.


    "4th April 1810.—A very little knowledge of human nature will convince you that this would have been thought an affront in five instances out of six.  You would have done better to have advised them, or even to have required them to have kept from the Lord's table till Mr. Fernandez's return, and to have left it to him to preside over the discipline of the church.  You, no doubt, did it without thinking of the consequences, and in the simplicity of your heart, and I think Mr. Fernandez is wrong in treating you with coolness, when a little conversation might have put everything to rights.  Of that, however,



the duty of reconciliation.



I shall say no more to you, but one of us shall write to him upon the subject as soon as we can.


    "The great thing to be done now is the effecting of a reconciliation between you, and whether you leave Sadamahal, or stay there, this is absolutely necessary.  In order to this you both must be willing to make some sacrifice of your feelings; and as those feelings, which prevent either of you from making concessions where you have acted amiss, are wrong, the sooner they are sacrificed the better.  I advise you to write to Mr. Fernandez immediately, and acknowledge that you did wrong in proceeding to the exclusion of the members without having first consulted with him, and state that you had no intention of hurting his feelings, but acted from what you thought the urgency of the case, and request of him a cordial reconciliation.  I should like much to see a copy of the letter you send to him.  I have no object in view but the good of the Church, and would therefore rather see you stoop as low as you can to effect a reconciliation, than avoid it through any little punctilio of honour or feeling of pride.  You will never repent of having humbled yourself to the dust that peace may be restored, nothing will be a more instructive example to the heathen around you, nothing will so completely subdue Brother Fernandez's dissatisfaction, and nothing will make you more respected in the Church of God.


    "It is highly probable that you will some time or other be removed to another situation, but it cannot be done till you are perfectly reconciled to each other, nor can it possibly be done till some time after your reconciliation, as such a step would be considered by all as an effect of resentment or dissatisfaction, and would be condemned by every thinking person.  We shall keep our minds steadily on the object, and look out for a proper station; but both we and you must act with great caution and tenderness in this affair.  For this



life of william carey.



reason also I entreat you not to withdraw yourself from the church, or from any part of your labours, but go on steadily in the path of duty, suppress and pray against every feeling of resentment, and bear anything rather than be accessory to a misunderstanding, or the perpetuating of one. 'Let that mind be in you which was also in Christ, who made himself of no reputation.'  I hope what I have said will induce you to set in earnest about a reconciliation with Brother Fernandez, and to spare no pains or concession (consistent with truth) to effect it."


    William had applied to be transferred to Serampore.


    "3d August 1811.—The necessities of the mission must be consulted before every other consideration.  Native brethren can itinerate, but Europeans must be employed to open new missions and found new stations.  For were we to go upon the plan of sending Europeans where natives could possibly be employed, no subscriptions or profits could support them.  We intend to commence a new station at Dacca, and if you prefer that to Cutwa you may go thither.  One of the first things to be done there will be to open a charity school, and to overlook it.  Dacca itself is a very large place, where you may often communicate religious instructions without leaving the town.  There are also a number of Europeans there, so that Mary would not be so much alone, and at any rate help would be near.  We can obtain the permission of Government for you to settle there, and, in short, everything may be so settled as to give you an opportunity of labouring for God without the fear of leaving your house exposed.


    "I ought, however, to say that I think there is much guilt in your fears.  You and Mary will be a thousand times more safe in committing yourselves to God in the way of duty than in neglecting obvious duty to take care of yourselves.  You see what hardships and dangers a soldier meets in the wicked






trade of war.  They are forced to leave home and expose themselves to a thousand dangers, yet they never think of objecting, and in this the officers are in the same situation as the men.  I will engage to say that no military officer would ever refuse to go any whither on service because his family must be exposed to danger in his absence; and yet I doubt not but many of them are men who have great tenderness for their wives and families.  However, they must be men and their wives must be women.  Your undertaking is infinitely superior to theirs in importance.  They go to kill men, you to save them.  If they leave their families to chance for the sake of war, surely you can leave yours to the God of providence while you go about His work.  I speak thus because I am much distressed to see you thus waste away the flower of your life in inactivity, and only plead for it what would not excuse a child.  Were you in any secular employment you must go out quite as much as we expect you to do in the Mission.  I did so when at Mudnabati, which was as lonesome a place as could have been thought of, and when I well knew that many of our own ryots were dakoits (robbers)."


    William finally settled at Cutwa higher up the Hoogli than Serampore, and did good service there.  He suffered from asthma.


    "23d March 1814.—In all such cases have immediate recourse to strong purgatives, blisters, etc., as directed by Dr. Wallich.  You must expect returns of these paroxysms, but be not discouraged.  I trust a persevering use of the means prescribed, joined to a great deal more exercise than you have been accustomed to, and especially that cheerful tranquillity which the principles of the Gospel inspire, will in time be effectual to remove or greatly weaken the disorder. . . .


    "Let us live near to God, and seek His glory in all we do, and let us be careful that what we do be right, and the divine



life of william carey.



blessing will attend us, God will smile upon our labours, and we shall have more abundant cause to rejoice in all that He does by us and by others."


    Thus far we have confined our study of William Carey to his purely missionary career, and that in its earlier half.  We have now to see him as the scholar, the Bible translator, the philanthropist, the agriculturist, and the educator.






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Created:    January 9, 2007            Updated:    July 8, 2007