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Colleagues / Bible Translation

*Anderson, Christopher. The Annals of the English Bible. By Christopher Anderson. Abridged and Continued by Samuel Irenaeus Prime, Secretary of the American Bible Society. New York: Robert Carter& Brothers, No. 530 Broadway, 1856.

Bible of Every Land, The. A History of the Sacred Scriptures in Every Language and Dialect into Which Translations Have Been Made: Illustrated by Specimen Portions in Native Characters, Series of Alphabets, Coloured Ethnological Maps, Tables, Indexes, etc. New ed., enlarged and enriched. London: Bagster, [1860].

Bible Through the Ages, The (Pleasantville, N. Y.: Reader’s Digest, 1996).

"biblical literature" Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

In this article, the author indicates that "A group at Serampore (in India) headed by William Carey, a Baptist missionary, produced 28 versions in Indian languages."

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

*Bishop of St. David's, A Letter to the Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Durham, on the Origin of the Pelasgi, and on the Original Name and Pronunciation of the Aeolic Digamma: in Answer to Professor Marsh's Horae Pelasgicae.  Carmarthen: Printed and Sold by J. Evans. Sold also by J. Harris, Carmarthen; Payne and Hatchard, London, 1815.

*British and Foreign Bible Society. Monthly Extracts of the British and Foreign Bible Society. no. 24, July 31, 1819; no. 31, February 29, 1820.

The Center's copies are addressed to Thomas Thompson of Islington.

--Myron C. Noonkester

Bratcher, Robert G. "Versions, Modern (Non-English)," The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supp. Vol., Keith Crim, gen. ed. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1976, pp. 938-39.

In this article, Bratcher cites the Serampore missionaries [Carey?, Marshman?, Ward?] as having translated the New Testament into Gujarati in 1820.

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

*Bush, L. Russ and Tom J. Nettles. Baptists and the Bible. Revised and Expanded. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1999.

Chapter six of this volume contains a section devoted to William Carey's work in Bible translation (pp. 107-116).  The authors highlight Carey's emphasis upon the divine inspiration of Scripture.  The main sources for this section are S. Pearce Carey's biography, the Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Missionary Society, and the far from commonplace but valuable Biographical and Literary Notices of William Carey (1886) .  

--Myron C. Noonkester

Dealtry, William. A Letter Addressed to the Rev. Dr. Wordsworth, in Reply to his "Reasons for Declining to Become a Subscriber to the British and Foreign Bible Society. 2nd ed., London: Hatchard, 1810.

Dealtry was Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Bristol, Chaplain to the Earl of Leven and Melville, Professor of Mathematics in the East-India College, Hertfordshire.

-Myron C. Noonkester

*________________. A Vindication of the British and Foreign Bible Society: in a Letter Addressed to the Rev. Dr. Wordsworth, Chiefly in Reply to his Letter to the Right Hon. Lord Teignmouth. London: Printed for J. Hatchard, 1810.

English Missionaries of Madras. A Grammar for Learning the Principles of the Malabar Language, Properly Called Tamul. Vepery near Madras: s. n., 1789.

*Fenn, Eric. "The Bible and the Missionary," in The Cambridge History of the Bible: The West from the Reformation to the Present Day, ed. S. L. Greenslade. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1963, pp. 383-406.

Fenn, former Editorial Secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, reviews the interrelation of Bible translation and missionary outreach, beginning with the sixteenth century Jesuits. Fenn remarks that Carey's work in India "still shocks us into incredulity by its scope and variety, above all in the field of Scripture translation" (p. 387).

Of more importance however, Fenn notes that the British and Foreign Bible Society (est. 1804) contacted Carey, Marshman, Ward, and "gave assistance in two ways--by contributing generously towards their expenses (to a total of £27,230) and by publishing the results of their labours. That these were extensive is shown by the startling fact that, before Carey's death in 1834, he and his colleagues had translated some part of the Scriptures into no less than thirty-four Asiatic languages" (p. 393).

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

Grether, Herbert G. "Versions, Modern Era," The Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman, gen. ed. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1992, VI:846-47.

Grether reviews the history of Bible translation throughout the world. In the section on "Asia," he notes William Carey's contribution along with Joshua Marshman and William Ward (i.e. the Serampore Trio). Grether argues that Carey, Marshman, and Ward "had significant help from native speakers of the languages they worked with. From their work came six complete Bibles, three others that were nearly so, 20 New Testaments, and at least a gospel in five more languages." Further, related to Bengali, "Carey's translation of Matthew was printed in 1800, his first NT in 1801, and the first complete Bengali Bible in 1809 . . . printed first by the Mission Press at Serampore" (p. 846).

Regarding Carey and other missionary "Translators Themselves," Grether suggests they "depended heavily on native speakers for assistance. These nationals were often, though not always, converts. . . . there were sometimes native speakers who did the actual translation" (p. 847).

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

Maas, A. J. "Versions of the Bible," The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton, 1907-1912. XV: . <Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight, Article Transcribed by Dennis McCarthy,>

Maas notes that Carey published a Bengali New Testament at Serampur in 1801 (followed by the 8th edition in 1832) and an Old Testament version in 1802-1809. Maas likewise notes that Carey published a Hindi New Testament at Serampur in 1811.

Maas includes reference to the Chinese translation (Serampur, 1815-1822) of the Bible by Joshua Marshman and Lassar; Maas remarks that this translation and several others by other missionaries "in general are unsatisfactory."

Maas includes other works published at Serampur: Henry Martyn's Hindustani New Testament (1814) and Gottlob Brücker's New Testament in Javanese (1831).

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

*Marsh, Herbert. A Letter to the Right Hon. N. Vansittart, M. P. Being an Answer to the Second Letter on the British and Foreign Bible Society; and, at the Same Time, An Answer to Whatever is Argumentative in Other Pamphlets, Which Have Been Lately Written to the Same Purpose.  London: Printed by Law and Gilbert St John's Clerkenwell; and Sold by Rivingtons, St Paul's Church-Yard; and by Deighton, Nicholson and Barrett, Cambridge, 1812.

*____________. A History of the Translations Which have been Made of the Scriptures, From the Earliest to the Present Age, Throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.  Composed Chiefly with the View of Ascertaining in How Many New Languages the British and Foreign Bible Society has been the Means of Preaching the Gospel.  Now Published as an Appendix to a Late Pamphlet, Entitled An Inquiry into the Consequences of Neglecting to Give the Prayer Book with the Bible.   London: Printed by Law and Gilbert St John's Clerkenwell; and Sold by Rivingtons, St Paul's Church-Yard; and by Deighton, Nicholson and Barrett, Cambridge, 1812.

Martin, Roger H. "Anglicans and Baptists in Conflict: The Bible Society, Bengal and the Baptizo Controversy," The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 49 (1998): 293-316.

*Milner, Rev. Isaac.  Strictures on Some of the Publications of the Rev. Herbert Marsh, D.D., Intended as a Reply to His Objections against the British and Foreign Bible Society.  London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies; J. Hatchard; L. B. Seeley, and Deighton, Cambridge, 1813.

*Monthly Extracts from the Correspondence of the British and Foreign Bible Society. no. 26. September 30, 1819.

*Monthly Extracts from the Correspondence of the British and Foreign Bible Society. nos. 45-46. January 31- December 30, 1837.

The Center's copies of these extracts for 1837 are bound together with Scottish Congregational Magazine. 3: 1837.

--Myron C. Noonkester

Murdoch, John. Catalogue of the Christian Vernacular Literature of India: with Hints on the Management of Indian Tract Societies. Madras: Foster, 1870.

*Noel, Gerald T. A Letter to the Right Hon. Lord Teignmouth, President of the British and Foreign Bible Society, on the Present Character of the Institution. London: J. Hatchard and Son, 1831.

The Center's copy is inscribed "from the Author."

--Myron C. Noonkester

*Reports of the British and Foreign Bible Society, with Extracts of Correspondence, &c.  Volume the Second, for 1811, 1812, and 1813.  Reprinted from the Original Reports.  London: Printed for the Society, By J. Tilling, Governor-Row, Chelsea, 1813.

*Summers, Thomas. The Bible in Many Tongues. Revised by Thomas Summers, D. D. Nashville: Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1860.

*THE HOLY BIBLE; Being the English Version of the Old and New Testaments, Made by order of King James I., Carefully Revised and Amended, by Several Biblical Scholars.  Second Edition.  Philadelphia.  Published for David Bernard.  By J. B. Lippincott, corner of Fourth and Race Streets.  Stereotyped by L. Johnson.  1842.

The Old Testament preface appears with the signature "The Proprietor, Philadelphia, February 1, 1842."  The New Testament preface appears with the signature of A[sahel] C[lark] Kendrick.  Kendrick (1809-1895) was a Baptist and Professor of Greek for many years at the University of Rochester.  One of the unique features of this Bible is the translation of the New Testament Greek word baptizō (i.e., baptize) as "immerse."

--Bennie R. Crockett, Jr.

*"Translations of the Scriptures. From the London Missionary Register, Sept. 1821. Serampore. Baptist Missionary Society," The Boston Recorder, Vol. VI. no. 50, December 8, 1821, p. 1.

*Veysie, Daniel. An Examination of Mr. Marsh's Hypothesis Respecting the Origin of our Three Canonical Gospels: Including an Attempt to Explain The Phaenomena Observable in these Gospels by a New Hypothesis. Oxford; at the University Press for the Author: Sold by J. Parker; and by Messrs. Rivington, St. Paul's Church Yard, London, 1808.

Wilson, Charles E. "The BMS and Bible Translation." Baptist Quarterly. 10:1-2 (1940-41): 97-105, 159-67.

[Wylie, Mrs. MacLeod]. Contributions Towards a History of Biblical Translations in India. [Reprinted from the Calcutta Christian Observer]. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1854.

Created:    December 20, 2000        Updated:    January 14, 2015

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